1. Pursuant to Art. 38(1) second sentence GG, members of the German Bundestag are representatives of the whole people. This rule stems from the principle of representative democracy. The German Bundestag is the body directly representing the people, and, as a “specific body” within the meaning of Art. 20(2) GG, it exercises the public authority emanating from the people (cf. BVerfGE 44, 308 <316>; 56, 396 <405>; 80, 188 <217>; 130, 318 <342>). In the system of parliamentary democracy enshrined in the Basic Law, the people are represented in Parliament by members of Parliament (cf. BVerfGE 44, 308 <316>; 56, 396 <405>; 80, 188 <217>; 130, 318 <342>). As a rule, the people are properly represented in parliamentary decisions only by Parliament as a whole, i.e. by the entirety of its members (cf. BVerfGE 44, 308 <316>; 56, 396 <405>; 80, 188 <218>; 130, 318 <342>). This does not mean that members of Parliament are able to represent the people only in plenary sessions. Traditionally, most parliamentary work is performed outside of plenary sessions. On the one hand, this is the result of life having grown increasingly complex over the years, necessitating the division of labour. On the other hand, it stems from the fact that because of the cumbersome way in which plenary sessions operate, detailed work is possible to only a very limited extent (BVerfGE 44, 308 <317>; see also BVerfGE 130, 318 <351>). However, this requires that the final decision on a parliamentary endeavour is reserved for the plenary session, that in terms of its nature and importance, participation of members of Parliament in preparing parliamentary decisions outside of the plenary session is essentially to be considered equivalent to participation in the plenary session, and that the parliamentary decision-making process remains institutionally embedded in the parliamentary sphere (BVerfGE 44, 308 <317>). Art. 38(1) second sentence GG therefore presupposes equal rights of participation for all members of the German Bundestag (cf. BVerfGE 56, 396 <405>; 80, 188 <218>; 84, 304 <321>; 130, 318 <342>) and includes the right to equal participation in the process of parliamentary policy formulation (BVerfGE 96, 264 <278>).