[…] Furthermore, the legislation in other European countries, in particular in the European Union Member States, leans towards equal treatment of different-sex and same-sex couples, which in a number of countries includes the possibility of adoption. Joint adoption by same-sex couples is currently allowed in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Spain, the United Kingdom, Iceland and Norway. The same countries allow for successive adoption for same-sex couples. In addition to Germany and the eight countries named, Finland and Slovenia also permit one civil partner to adopt the other civil partner’s biological child (stepchild adoption). Apart from in Germany, single adoptions by homosexuals are also possible in Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, England and Wales, Croatia, Monaco, and Turkey. A corresponding development is apparent in both the case-law of the Federal Constitutional Court (cf. on the one hand BVerfGE 6, 389 and on the other hand BVerfGE 105, 313; 124, 199) and of the European courts (regarding the equal treatment of registered civil partners in general cf. ECJ, judgment of 1 April 2008 – C-267/06 – Tadao Maruko/Versorgungsanstalt der Deutschen Bühnen , Europäische Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsrecht – EuZW 2008, pp. 314 et seq.; regarding single-parent adoption by a homosexual person cf. on the one hand ECHR, judgment of 26 February 2002 – 35615/97 – Fretté/France , Zeitschrift für das gesamte Familienrech t – FamRZ 2003, pp. 149 et seq.; on the other hand now ECHR, judgment of 22 January 2008 – 43546/02 – E.B./France , Neue Juristische Wochenschrift – NJW 2009, pp. 3637 et seq.).